COVID-19 key research papers and resources

coronavirus and map of China

We have continually curated important research papers and other resources, under topic headings, on COVID-19 to provide a quick and easy guide to current evidence. 



UNSW Time Series Modelling global dashboard


WHO dashboard

Johns Hopkins KAP COVID (social and behavioural data)

Imperial College KAP COVID

Carnegie Mellon COVIDCast (US data)

"Policy Tracker"  Launched by the IMF March 25, summarizes the key economic responses governments are taking to limit the human and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic as of March 24, 2020. 

The Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker was launched on March 24 and counts data from 73 countries so far, including China, South Korea, Italy, UK and USA. T

PEW Research center


Paediatric cases and vertical transmission

Outbreak in schools after opening of schools, Israel

Children with MIS-C

Infection in contacts of children aged year K-12

Assessment of Maternal and Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load, Transplacental Antibody Transfer, and Placental Pathology in Pregnancies During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Children and SARS CoV 2

Age-Related Differences in Nasopharyngeal Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Levels in Patients With Mild to Moderate Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

American academy of pediatrics data on child COVID-19 cases

Hospitalization Rates and Characteristics of Children Aged <18 Years Hospitalized with Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 — COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1–July 25, 2020

Clinical Characteristics and Viral RNA Detection in Children With Coronavirus Disease 2019 in the Republic of Korea

Household secondary attack rate highest when index case is a child

SARS-CoV-2 in cardiac tissue of a child

Role of children in household transmission

Study showing higher viral shedding in children <5 years

School cluster of COVID-19 in France

SARS-CoV-2 infection in primary schools in northern France: A retrospective cohort study in an area of high transmission

Good summary of schools, children and COVID-19


Multisystem inflammatory disease in children


Renal disease in children


Outcomes in pregnant women


Kawasaki disease US


Kawasaki disease in the UK


Kawasaki diseases in France


Lower ACE2 receptor expression in children<10 years compared to people >10 years


2005 study showing association of coronaviruses with Kawasaki disease


SARS CoV 2 viral loads in children vs adults


NEJM COVID in children


Paediatric cases in the USA


Persistent viral shedding in children (Nature Medicine)


Epidemiology in children (review)


Lu et al. SARS-COV2 in Children. NEJM 2020


Detection of COVID in febrile children in January in Wuhan 


Yuanyuan Dong, Xi Mo, Yabin Hu,et al. Epidemiological Characteristics of 2143 Pediatric Patients
With 2019 Coronavirus Disease in China.  
Pediatrics. 2020; doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-0702 

Cai, J. X. J., Daojiong, L; et al (2020). "A Case Series of children with 2019 novel coronavirus infection: clinical and epidemiological features." Clinical Infectious Diseases.


Chan, J. F.-W., et al. (2020). "A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster." The Lancet.


Wei, M., et al. (2020). "Novel Coronavirus Infection in Hospitalized Infants Under 1 Year of Age in China." JAMA.


Chen, H. G., J; Wang, C; et al (2020). "Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records." Lancet.


Asymptomatic children can shed virus for 10 days or more. Lancet.


JAMA: neonatal COVID 19


SARSCoV2 in childen


Clinical and epidemiological features of 36 children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Zhejiang, China: an observational cohort study


Lay summary of risk of transmission in kids


Transmission dynamics

Transmissibility and transmission of respiratory viruses

Viral load and super-spreading

Attack rate in Manaus, Brazil 

Increased transmissibility of B117 variant in the UK

Transmissibility of B117 variant

Household attack rates in the US

Epidemiology and transmission dynamics in 2 Indian states (large contact tracing study)

Secondary household attack rates - metaanalysis

Data from 3 outbreak clusters with presymptomatic transmission

85% attack rate on a fishing trawler

Household contact study from the US

Transmission on a train

Airborne transmission as the dominant mode


Projecting the transmission dynamics of SARS CoV 2 through the post-pandemic period


High transmission near symptom onset


Li, Q., et al. (2020). "Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia." New England Journal of Medicine.


Chan, J. F.-W., et al. (2020). "A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster." The Lancet.


Liu, Y. E., R.M; Kucharski, A.J (2020). "Secondary attack rate and superspreading events for SARS-CoV-2." Lancet.


Stephen A. Lauer, MS, PhD *; Kyra H. Grantz, BA *; Qifang Bi, MHS; Forrest K. Jones, MPH; Qulu Zheng, MHS; Hannah R. Meredith, PhD; Andrew S. Azman, PhD; Nicholas G. Reich, PhD; Justin Lessler, PhD. The Incubation Period of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) From Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases: Estimation and Application


Retracted study (reasons unknown) showed transmission of COVID19 over 4.5m on a bus

COVID can survive in the air for 3 hours

Tapiwa Ganyani, Cecile Kremer, Dongxuan Chen, Andrea Torneri, Christel Faes, Jacco Wallinga, Niel Hens. Estimating the generation interval for COVID-19 based on symptom onset data. MedRXiv 2020 doi:


Prof Don Milton on WHO statement that COVID-19 is not airborne


Transmission at a bath centre in China


Droplets generated through normal speech


Coronaviruses exhaled in normal breathing, prevented by a mask


Viral shedding, immunology, immunity (including duration of shedding and shedding in “recovered” patients or reinfection), pathology and PCR-testing studies

Reinfection, Brazil

Reinfection risk after 6 months

Prolonged shedding of B117

Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody responses and duration of immunity: a longitudinal study

Viral load and contact heterogeneity predict SARS-CoV-2 transmission and super-spreading events

Summary of variant strains and vaccine escape potential

SARS-CoV-2 501Y.V2 escapes neutralization by South African COVID-19 donor plasma

Antibody dependent enhancement

Novel ACE Isoform

Antibody responses to SARS CoV 2 infection (IgA, IgM)

Anti-phospholipid antibodies and thormbosis

Will SARS CoV 2 become endemic (Science)

Reinfection with SARS CoV 2

Ultra-potent human antibodies to SARS CoV 2

Loss of SARS CoV 2 antibodies in mild infection

Antibody-like proteins that capture and neutralize SARS-CoV-2

Antibody Profiles and Mild or Severe SARS-CoV-2

Differential Tropism of SARS-CoVs in Bat Cells

SARS-CoV-2 in Quarantined Domestic Cats from COVID-19 Households or Close Contacts, Hong Kong, China

Short term immunity from seasonal coronaviruses

Neurological complications


Viral shedding in severe and mild cases

Long duration of viral shedding

Cardiac pathology in COVID-19

Reinfection with more severe infection the second time

A case of reinfection in Hong Kong

How long should isolation be - review of viral shedding data

Pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2: the knowns and unknowns

ACE2 expression in resp tract of adults, children, patients with COPD

Deep immune profiling of COVID-19 patients reveals distinct immunotypes with therapeutic implications

Cases who re-test positive after discharge - data from S Korea suggest not infectious


Infection gradient in the respiratory tract (Cell)


Targets of T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in humans with COVID-19 disease and unexposed individuals


Viable virus in faeces 


Reinfection with seasonal coronaviruses 


Proportion of test positive cases in Seattle and Washington State EDs and outpatient clinics


Viral load dynamics and disease severity in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Zhejiang province, China, January-March 2020: retrospective cohort study

Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID-2019 (Nature)


Zou, L., et al. (2020). "SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load in Upper Respiratory Specimens of Infected Patients." New England Journal of Medicine.  (contains data on asymptomatic shedding)


Lan, L. X. D. Y. G. e. a. (2020). "Positive RT-PCR Test Results in Patients Recovered From COVID-19." JAMA.


Zhang, J. W., S; Xue, Y (2020). "Fecal Specimen Diagnosis 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia." J Med Virol.


Study in macaques on reinfection


Low levels of antibodies in recovered patients


Viral shedding in upper and lower respiratory tract


immune dysfunction in covid19




Asymptomatic infection and transmission

Airborne transmission in a church, Australia

Seropositivity in household contacts

Rates of asymptomatic infection in the US

Transmission from asymptomatic people

Viral load in asymptomatic higher than symptomatic

Transmission risk in outdoor and indoor settings

Mass screening in Wuhan and asymptomatic infection

OUtbreak data on proportion symptomatic and asymptomatic

Long distance spread of SARS CoV 2 in a hospital

Aerosol transmission between ferrets

Clinical and immunological features of asymptomatic infection

Modelling of Diamond Princess outbreak shows 69% of transmission was from asymptomatic

Half of infections on cruise ship were asymptomatic

Clinical Course and Molecular Viral Shedding Among Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Patients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Community Treatment Center in the Republic of Korea

Prevalence of asymptomatic infection - review (Annals Int Med)

Contact infection rate 

Asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission in an outbreak in Germany (Lancet)


Asymptomatic infection on the Diamond Princess


Natural history of asymptomatic infection (NEJM)


Summary of different studies showing high rates of asymptomatic infection


Up to 44% infections occur when index case is presymptomatic (Nature)


Asymptomatic infection in aged care (CDC)


Asymptomatic infection in aged care (NEJM)


Asymptomatic infection - population screening in Iceland


Relative transmissibility of asymptomatic cases


Nishiura, H., et al. (2020). "The Rate of Underascertainment of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Infection: Estimation Using Japanese Passengers Data on Evacuation Flights." Journal of Clinical Medicine 9(2): 419.


Hoehl S, Rabenau H, Berger A, Kortenbusch M, Cinatl J, Bojkova D, et al. Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Returning Travelers from Wuhan, China. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020.


Bai, Y. Y., Lingsheng;Wei, Tao; Tian, Fei; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chen,Lijuan; Wang, Meiyun (2020). "Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19." JAMA Published online February 21, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.2565.


Rothe, C. S., M; Sothmann, P; et al (2020). "Transmission of 2019-nCoV Infection from an Asymptomatic Contact in Germany." New England Journal of Medicine.


Lin, C. D., Y; Xie, B; et al (2020). "Asymptomatic Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Patient Outside Wuhan: The Value of CT Images in the Course of the Disease." Clinical Imaging 63: 7-9.


Lu, C. L., X; Jia, Z (2020). "2019-nCoV transmission through the ocular surface must not be ignored." Lancet 395(10224): E39.


Estimating the Asymptomatic Proportion of 2019 Novel Coronavirus onboard the Princess Cruises Ship, 2020

Kenji Mizumoto, Katsushi Kagaya, Alexander Zarebski, Gerardo Chowell. medRxiv 2020.02.20.20025866; doi:


Zou, L., et al. (2020). "SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load in Upper Respiratory Specimens of Infected Patients." New England Journal of Medicine.  (contains data on asymptomatic shedding)

Jing Cai1, Wenjie Sun1, Jianping Huang1, Michelle Gamber, Jing Wu , and Guiqing He. Indirect Virus Transmission in Cluster of COVID-19 Cases, Wenzhou, China, 2020 EID 2020; 26: early release.


Roman Woelfel, Corman, MV; Guggemos, W et Clinical presentation and virological assessment of hospitalized cases of coronavirus disease 2019 in a travel-associated transmission clusteral


Riyun Li, Sen Pei, Bin Chen et al.  Substantial undocumented infection facilitates the rapid dissemination of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2)Science  16 Mar 2020:


Transmission in aircraft


Why testing matters - the case study of USA


Summary of evidence on infectious period


Use of masks for sick patients - human coronaviruses


SARS-CoV-2 in blood donations


Barrier box for endotracheal intubation (NEJM)


Transmission from deceased patients in a morgue


Substantial undocumented transmission of SARS CoV 2


Airborne transmission of SARSCoV 2


Comparative aerosol efficiency of SARS, SARS COV2 and MERS COV


Clinical characteristics and epidemiology (including case fatality rate)

Infection fatality rate by age

Risk of death from B117

Impact of COVID-19 restrictions on traffic accidents and injuries

Risk of mortality for B117 variant

Severe COVID-19 pneumonia

Impact of COVID measures on other viruses

Impact of COVID measures on influenza

Risk of death in teachers

All cause deaths in the US during 2020

Effect of school closures in the US 

Sequelae in Adults at 6 Months After COVID-19 Infection

Comparison of hospitalised influenza and COVID-19

Readmission in death in survivors

Varying severity of disease in identical twins

Lower risk of COVID in people with asthma

Evidence of SARS CoV 2 in the US in December 2019

Post-acute complications

COVID-19 and cardiac arrest

Risk factors for COVID-19 - meta-analysis. Hypertension, CVD, COPD, diabetes

Incidence and treatment of arrhythmias secondary to coronavirus infection in humans

Chronic manifestations of COVID-19

Risk factors in US veterans - ethnicity not a risk factor

COVID-19 and the heart

Eye glasses and risk of COVID

Risk factors for COVID-19 severe outcomes


Clinical presentations of COVID patients


Post-mortem findings (JAMA)


Diffuse pulmonary arterial thrombosis in fatal cases


Large vessel stroke in younger adults, some without symptoms of COVID-19 (NEJM)


Epidemiology and transmission of COVID-19 in 391 cases and 1286 of their close contacts in Shenzhen, China: a retrospective cohort study


Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area


Kenji MizumotoImage removed.  and Gerardo Chowell. Estimating Risk for Death from 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease, China, January–February 2020. EID. Volume 26, Number 6—June 2020


Zhou F, Du R et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. March 9, 2020 S0140-6736(20)30566-3


Lauer SA, Grantz KH, Bi Q, et al. The Incubation Period of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) From Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases: Estimation and Application. Ann Intern Med. 2020; [Epub ahead of print 10 March 2020]. doi:


Wang, D., et al. (2020). "Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China." JAMA.


Chen, N. Z., M; Dong X; et al (2020). "Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study." Lancet.


Guan, W. N., Z; Hu, Y; et al (2020). "Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China." New England Journal of Medicine.


Huang, C. W., Y; Li, X; et al (2020). "Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China." Lancet.


Holshue, M. D., C; Lindquist, S; et al (2020). "First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States." New England Journal of Medicine.


Young, Ong, SWX; Kalimuddin, S; et al (2020). "Epidemiologic Features and Clinical Course of Patients Infected With SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore." JAMA.


The Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team. The Epidemiological Characteristics of an Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) — China, 2020[J]China CDC Weekly, 2020, 2(8): 113-122

Joseph T Wu, Kathy Leung, Mary Bushman, et al. Estimating clinical severity of COVID-19 from the transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China. Preprint, Nature Research. 2020 DOI: 10.21203/


Case series from Seattle, NEJM


Coronavirus: Why it’s so deadly in Italy


Case fatality 7.2% in Italy - JAMA


Patients dying in Italy


Cross country CFR comparision


CFR in Germany and European countries


Epidemiology in the US


Who has flattened the curve best?


Estimates of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019: a model-based analysis (Lancet)


Coagulopathy and Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Patients with Covid-19 (NEJM)


Olfactory epithelium and anosmia


Immune thrombocytopenia


Outbreaks in detention centres


Guillaine Barre Syndrome associated with SARS CoV 2 infection


Complex immune dysregulation (Cell)


Neurological complications


Does MTB increase the risk of COVID19?


Antibody dependent immune enhancement with COVID19



R0 estimates, modelling and epidemic predictions

Estimated transmissibility and impact of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 in England

Manaus, Brazil - reinfection with P1

Infectiousness of B117 variant in the UK


Super-spreading and R0 estimates in Indonesia


Wu, J. L., K; Leung, G (2020). "Nowcasting and forecasting the potential domestic and international spread of the 2019-nCoV outbreak originating in Wuhan, China: a modelling study." Lancet 395(10225): 689-697.


Li, Q., et al. (2020). "Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia." New England Journal of Medicine.


Anderson, RM; Heesterbeek, H; Klinkenberg, D; Hollingsworth, TD. How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic? Lancet. Published:March 09, 2020DOI:


De Salazar et al. Identifying Locations with Possible Undetected Imported Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Cases by Using Importation Predictions. EID



Sensitivity of diagnostic tests including chest imaging

Correlation between 3790 qPCR positives samples and positive cell cultures including 1941 SARS-CoV-2 isolates

The fuss about cycle threshholds for PCR

Salivary test

Variation in False-Negative Rate of Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction–Based SARS-CoV-2 Tests by Time Since Exposure


Performance of self-collected nasal swabs


Wenling Wang, PhD1; Yanli Xu, MD2; Ruqin Gao, MD3; et alRoujian Lu, MPH1; Kai Han, BS2; Guizhen Wu, MD1; Wenjie Tan, MD, PhD1. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Different Types of Clinical Specimens JAMA. Published online March 11, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.3786


Xie, X., et al. (2020). "Chest CT for Typical 2019-nCoV Pneumonia: Relationship to Negative RT-PCR Testing." Radiology: 200343.


Lin, C. D., Y; Xie, B; et al (2020). "Asymptomatic Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Patient Outside Wuhan: The Value of CT Images in the Course of the Disease." Clinical Imaging 63: 7-9.


Molecular diagnostics and antibody tests


Serological responses (IgM and IgG) to COVID 19


Neutralizing antibody response in recovered patients


Antibody responses


Lower antibodies in asymptomatic infected


Use of salivary testing


Immunological correlates of protection

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2−Specific Antibody Responses in Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients


Population serosurveys 

Bergamo, Italy

Wuhan, China

United states - asymptomatic seropositive rates

Vo, Italy 

Santa Clara County, California, USA


Los Angeles, USA

Bergamo, Italy

Geneva, Switzerland


United States blood donors

Elective surgery patients, Australia

Karnataka, India


Co-infection with other pathogens

Co-infection in Australia

Increased risk of death with influenza/SARS CoV 2 infection

Co-infection (JAMA)

Wang et al. Clinical diagnosis of 8274 samples with 2019-novel coronavirus in Wuhan. MerRIV 2020

Xiaojing Wu, Ying Cai, Xu Huang. Co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza A Virus in Patient with Pneumonia, China. EID Volume 26, Number 6—June 2020

20% rate of co-infection (JAMA)



Phylogenetics and virology

Risk of death from B117 variant of concern

B117 in long term care facilities, England

Risk of mortality for B117

Emergence of a SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern with mutations in spike glycoprotein

Genetic epidemiology of SARS CoV 2 in South America

Transmissbility of B117

SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 is susceptible to neutralizing antibodies elicited by ancestral Spike vaccines

Increased viral load with B117

NERVTAG report on increased severity and risk of death with UK variant

Explainer on variants of concern

Increased risk of death with B117

Evolution of mutations in immunocompromised host treated with convalescent plasma

Comprehensive mapping of mutations to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain that affect recognition by polyclonal human serum antibodies

Rapid genetic evolution in an immunocompromised host

The VUI-202012/01 (B117) mutation in the UK

Evolutionary origin of SARS CoV 2

Genetic epidemiology in Maryland

Interpretation of positive PCR after recovery


D614G mutation increases infectivity of SARS-CoV-2

Cryptic transmission in Washington state

The D614G mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein reduces S1 shedding and increases infectivity

Korber at al. The G vs D strain  and explanation by Trevor Bedford

Roujian Lu, Xiang Zhao, Juan Li, Peihua Niu, Bo Yang, Honglong Wu, et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. The Lancet, Vol. 395, No. 10224, p565–574 from The Bedford Lab provides a continually updated phylogenetic tree  

Phylogenetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2:

Xiaolu Tang, Changcheng Wu, Xiang Li, Yuhe Song, Xinmin Yao, Xinkai Wu, Yuange Duan, Hong Zhang, Yirong Wang, Zhaohui Qian. On the origin and continuing evolution of SARS-CoV-2. National Science Review, nwaa036, 2020.

Kristian G. Andersen, Andrew Rambaut, W. Ian Lipkin, Edward C. Holmes & Robert F. Garry The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nature Medicine. 2020

The proximal origin of SARS CoV 2

Synthetic SARS CoV 2


Environmental contamination, aerosols, air sampling, hospital ward sampling, PPE and disinfection

Airborne transmission of SARS CoV 2 between ferrets

Risk factors and on-site simulation of environmental transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the largest wholesale market of Beijing, China

Cold-chain food contamination as the possible origin of COVID-19 resurgence in Beijing 

Mechanistic transmission modeling of COVID-19 on the Diamond Princess cruise ship demonstrates the importance of aerosol transmission

Particle sizes of infectious aerosols: implications for infection control

Characterization of hospital airborne SARS-CoV-2

Aerosol filtration efficiency of household materials for homemade face masks: Influence of material properties, particle size, particle electrical charge, face velocity, and leaks

Long-distance airborne dispersal of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 wards

SARS CoV 2 in the air inside a car

Prof Don Milton lecture on aerosols

Is wiping surfaces of any use?

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 within the healthcare environment: a multicentre study conducted during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in England

Assessment of Air Contamination by SARS-CoV-2 in Hospital Settings

Another building with transmission through air ducts

Short range aerosols

Aerosol generation during intubation, extubation and coughing

Virus on banknotes and touch screens for weeks

Effect of air purifiers in closed classrooms

Airborne transmission of SARS CoV2

Aerosol transmission in a choir practice

Viable airborne SARS CoV 2 in the absence of aerosol generating procedures

CDC list of disinfectants for SARS CoV 2

Aerosol generation and a novel hood for COVID-19 patients

Airborne transmission in aged care

Probable Evidence of Fecal Aerosol Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a High-Rise Building

Evidence of airborne transmission of SARS CoV2 including spread through a building

Aerodynamics of SARS CoV 2 in a hospital in Wuhan

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by inhalation of respiratory aerosol in the Skagit Valley Chorale superspreading event

Quantitative assessment of the risk of airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection: prospective and retrospective applications

Evidence of aerosol transmission

Viable SARS CoV2 in air 

Airborne SARS-CoV-2 is Rapidly Inactivated by Simulated Sunlight

Reducing transmission of SARS CoV 2

Small droplet aerosols in poorly ventilated spaces and SARS-CoV-2 transmission

Study comparing original and modified WHO hand sanitizer formulation against SARS-CoV-2

Aerodynamic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in two Wuhan hospitals (Nature)

Comparative dynamic aerosol efficiencies of three emergent coronaviruses and the unusual persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in aerosol suspensions (from NIH, USAMRID, UTMB, Tulane)

Aerosol transmission of SARSCoV2 - review

Sean Wei Xiang Ong, Yian Kim Tan, Po Ying Chia, et al. Air, Surface Environmental, and Personal Protective Equipment Contamination by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) From a Symptomatic Patient JAMA. Published online March 4, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.3227


Van Dorelman et al. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. NEJM. March 17, 2020. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2004973


Kampf, G et al. Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents. J Hosp Inf Cont. 2020. 104, Issue 3, Pages 246–251.


SARS-CoV 2 found on surfaces in the Diamond Princess 17 days after passengers disembarked


SARSCoV2 on banknotes, masks and other surfaces


SARSCoV2 in wastewater in US


SARS COV2 - environmental contamination, air vents, air samples and spread 4m from patient


Widespread contamination and airborne transmission - University of Nebraska Medical Center


Detection of Air and Surface Contamination by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Hospital Rooms of Infected Patients


Aerodynamic Characteristics and RNA Concentration of SARS-CoV-2 Aerosol in Wuhan Hospitals during COVID-19 Outbreak


Re-use and decontamination on N95 respirators


Persistence of aerosolised viable SARS-CoV2


Disinfection methods for re-using single use PPE


COVID-19 in air pollution particles


National academies of science (NAS) Rapid Expert Consultation on SARS-CoV-2 Survival in Relation to Temperature and Humidity and Potential for Seasonality for the COVID-19 Pandemic (April 7, 2020) (2020)


Other NAS rapid reviews


Antivirals, drugs and other treatments

Inhaled steroids for mild COVID-19

Baricitinib plus Remdesivir for Hospitalized Adults with Covid-19

IL6 antagonists (REMAP-CAP trial)

Recovery trial - dexamethasone

Meta-analysis of convalescent plasma

Early High-Titer Plasma Therapy to Prevent Severe Covid-19 in Older Adults

Effect of Bamlanivimab as Monotherapy or in Combination With Etesevimab on Viral Load in Patients With Mild to Moderate COVID-19

RCT of Vitamin D

WHO Solidarity trial


RCT of convalescent plasma

RCT of Monoclonal antibody LYCoV555

Tocilizumab in Patients Hospitalized with Covid-19 Pneumonia

Aspirin for COVID-19

Vitamin D pilot RCT

Effect of Colchicine vs Standard Care on Cardiac and Inflammatory Biomarkers and Clinical Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized With Coronavirus Disease 2019The GRECCO-19 Randomized Clinical Trial

No benefit of HCQ

WHO solidarity trial

Convalescent Plasma for the Treatment of COVID-19: Perspectives of the National Institutes of Health COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel

Heparin - role of heparan sulfate in spike protein binding

RCT of Remdesivir (JAMA)

Colchicine as a treatment (JAMA)

Low dose steroids

Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin


Neutralising antibody in an animal model (Science)


Convalescent plasma (RCT) (JAMA)


Recombinant, soluble ACE2


No efficacy of HCQ as prophylaxis for contacts (NEJM)


No difference between 5 or 10 days of remdesevir


Remdesivir - shorter time to recovery (NEJM)


Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine associated with increased mortality. - the veracity of the data in this study has been questioned and a letter signed by hundreds of scientists sent to Lancet


Expression of concern from Lancet about HCQ study above


Ivermectin shows invitro activity against SARS-CoV-2


COVID-19. hyperglycaemia and hydroxychloroquine


Lopinavir-ritonavir with and without IFNB


Anakinra (Lancet Rheumatology)


Remdesivir RCT (Lancet)


Elifky, A. (2020). "Anti-HCV, Nucleotide Inhibitors, Repurposing Against COVID-19." Life Science.


Sheahan, T. P. S., A.C; Leist, S.R; et al (2020). "Comparative Therapeutic Efficacy of Remdesivir and Combination Lopinavir, Ritonavir, and Interferon Beta Against MERS-CoV." Nature Communications 11(1): 222.


Gordon, C. J. T., E.P; Feng, J.Y; et. al (2020). "The antiviral compound remdesivir potently inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus." J Biological Chemistry.


Li, G. D. C., E (2020). "Therapeutic options for the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)." Nature Reviews 19.


Liying Dong 1Shasha Hu 2Jianjun Gao 1 Discovering Drugs to Treat Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)  Drug Discov Ther 14 (1), 58-60  2020


Is ibuprofen safe for people with COVID-19?


Cao B et al. A Trial of Lopinavir–Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19


remdesivir and chloroquine

No evidence of improved viral clearance on hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin


Compassionate use of remdesivir (NEJM)


RCT of hydroxychloroquine


Should ACE inhibitors be continued?


ACEI/ARB not associated with mortality


Convalescent serum


ACEI not associated with in-hospital mortality (NEJM)



Herpes zoster after Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine

COVID-19 dynamics after a national immunization program in Israel

Pathology of VITT

VITT following J&J

Phase 3 trial Sinovac

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein and Anti-Platelet Factor 4 Antibody Responses Induced by COVID-19 Disease and ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination


Immune response after infection and 1 dose vaccine

Novavax, Moderna neutralisation against variants of concern

EMA statement on AZ vaccine and VIPIT

Adverse events following mRNA vaccines

Duration of immunity, Moderna

VIPIT - British Haematologists guidelines

VIPIT guidelines Canada

AZ- associated Vaccine induced prothrombotic immune thrombocytopena - list of case reports

A Prothrombotic Thrombocytopenic Disorder Resembling Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Following Coronavirus-19 Vaccination

Pfizer press release - trial of children 12-16

VE of AZ against B117

Herd immunity, Israel?

Effectiveness of mRNA vaccines against all infection in US

Early Evidence of the Effect of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine at One Medical Center

European Medicines Agency statement on AZ and CVT

AZ trial in the US - press release

Neutralising antibodies after Pfizer vaccine

mRNA vaccine explainer

Moderna vaccine activity against variants of concern

Efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.351 Variant (NEJM)

The rise of SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 in Israel intensifies the role of surveillance and vaccination in elderly

Assessing the Effectiveness of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1nCoV-19 COVID-19 Vaccination in Prevention of Hospitalisations in Elderly and Frail Adults: A Single Centre Test Negative Case-Control Study

Immunogenicity of Ad26 COVID-19 vaccine (JnJ)

Antibody response to Pfizer in seropositive people

Neutralizing Activity of BNT162b2-Elicited Serum

Delayed local reactions to mRNA vaccines

Immunogenicity of single dose Pfizer and Moderna vaccines after natural infection

Preliminary Efficacy of the NVX-CoV2373 Covid-19 Vaccine Against the B.1.351 Variant

Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 spike 69/70 deletion, E484K and N501Y variants by BNT162b2 vaccine-elicited sera

Effectiveness of First Dose of COVID-19 Vaccines Against Hospital Admissions in Scotland: National Prospective Cohort Study of 5.4 Million People

Impact of vaccinating older adults

Effectiveness of BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine Against Infection and COVID-19 Vaccine Coverage in Healthcare Workers in England, Multicentre Prospective Cohort Study (the SIREN Study)

COVID vaccines in pregnant women

BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine in a Nationwide Mass Vaccination Setting - Israel

Janssen vaccine FDA submission

Effectiveness of First Dose of COVID-19 Vaccines Against Hospital Admissions in Scotland: National Prospective Cohort Study of 5.4 Million People

Bells palsy and mRNA vaccines

First real-world UK data shows Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine provides high levels of protection from the first dose

mRNA vaccine-elicited antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and circulating variants

Moderna vaccine response to variants

FDA-authorized mRNA  COVID-19 vaccines are effective per real-world evidence synthesized across a multi-state health system

Single-dose administration and the influence of the timing of the booster dose on immunogenicity and efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine: a pooled analysis of four randomised trials

Neutralisation against variants of concern - Pfizer

Neutralisation against variants of concern - Moderna

Reduced efficacy of AZ vaccine in South Africa

Impact of vaccination in Israel

Reduced viral load after vaccination with Pfizer (Israel)

Allergic Reactions Including Anaphylaxis After Receipt of the First Dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine

Sputnik vaccine interim phase 3

Commentary on Sputnik and other Ad vectored vaccines

Sinopharm vaccines neutralising ability against South African variant

Single Dose Administration, And The Influence Of The Timing Of The Booster Dose On Immunogenicity and Efficacy Of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) Vaccine

J&J press release

Novavax press release - reduced efficacy against mutants

Novavax preclinical (animal) study

Bharat Biotech Phase 1

Moderna press release on UK, South African variants of concern

Sanofi and GSK phase 1 trial

J&J Phase 1-2 trial

Sinovac phase 1/2

Adenoviral vectors for vaccines explained

Mandating COVID vaccines - legal and ethical considerations

Moderna RCT

Herd immunity through vaccination

mRNA vaccines explained

Pfizer phase 3 trial

Astra Zeneca Phase 3 trial

Astra Zeneca Phase 2/3 RCT

Requirements for herd immunity with a vaccine

Prospects for a safe vaccine

Pfizer vaccine phase 1 NEJM

Safety and immunogenicity of the Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccine candidate: interim results of a phase 1/2a, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Sinovac CORONAVAC phase 1/2 RCT

The problems with adenovirus vectors explained

Influenza vaccine and COVID19

WHO summary of vaccines in development

Russian adenovirus 5 and 6 prime boost vaccine

Critique of Russian data

Phase 1–2 Trial of a SARS-CoV-2 Recombinant Spike Protein Nanoparticle Vaccine (Novavax/UQ)

List of authors.Attitudes to vaccines

Antibody dependent enhancement

Whole inactivated vaccine shows good immunogenicity and safety


Moderna vaccine Phase 1 trial

First in humans phase 1 trial of adenovirus 5 vectored COVID19 vaccine


No association between childhood BCG and COVID-19 (JAMA)


Eight different approaches to COVID19 vaccines explained


Overview of different vaccine approaches by Sinobiologicals


Behzadi MA and Leyva-Grado VH. Front Microbiol 2019 - Review. PMID 31275265 Free PMC article. Overview of Current Therapeutics and Novel Candidates Against Influenza, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections.


BCG vaccine protection from severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)


Treatment for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome from COVID-19


Vaccine development landscape for COVID-19


Influenza vaccine and viral interference with coronaviruses


The Potential Role of Th17 Immune Responses in Coronavirus Immunopathology and Vaccine-induced Immune Enhancement


Immunological and genomic correlates of protection and disease severity

Antibody responses and symptoms

Reinfection in Manaus, Brazil

Antibody dependent enhancement explained

Duration of immunity after infection

Cross reaction with human seasonal coronavirus memory T cells

Autoantibodies against IFN

Inborn errors of type I IFN immunity in patients with life-threatening COVID-19

Inhibition of IFN by SARS CoV 2

Serological responses at 4 months after infection in Iceland


Immune responses in older people


SARS-CoV-2 T cell immunity: Specificity, function, durability, and role in protection


Deep immune profiling


Pre-existing immunity


Genomewide Association Study of Severe Covid-19 with Respiratory Failure


Cross-reactive S-reactive CD4 cells in SARS-CoV-2 negative people


Effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical measures (contact tracing, case isolation, quarantine, travel restrictions, PPE)

Air cleaners for the COVID ward

Testing mobile air purifiers in a school classroom: Reducing the airborne transmission risk for SARS-CoV-2

Elastomeric vs N95 during resuscitation

Effect of 3ft vs 6ft distancing in schools

Assessment of Use and Fit of Face Masks Among Individuals in Public During the COVID-19 Pandemic in China

Summary evidence for masks

Quarantine and isolation for reducing transmission

Evidence for masks against SARS CoV 2

Social distancing impact

Reducing transmission of SARS CoV 2

Assessing the impact of coordinated COVID-19 exit strategies across Europe

Universal masking in hospitals

Physical distancing interventions and incidence of coronavirus disease 2019: natural experiment in 149 countries

Impact of lockdown in UK on health services


Comparison of Estimated Rates of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Border Counties in Iowa Without a Stay-at-Home Order and Border Counties in Illinois With a Stay-at-Home Order


Contact tracing efficacy

Association of Public Health Interventions With the Epidemiology of the COVID-19 Outbreak in Wuhan, China


Valentina Costantino (1), David J Heslop (2), C Raina MacIntyre (1).  The effectiveness of full and partial travel bans against COVID-19 spread in Australia for travellers from China. MedRxiv 2020.

Hellewell, J. A., S; Gimma, et al (2020). "Feasibility of controlling COVID-19 outbreaks by isolation of cases and contacts." Lancet Global Health.


Chinazzi M, Davis JT, Ajelli M, Gioannini C, Litvinova M, Merler S, Pastore Y Piontti A, Mu K, Rossi L, Sun K, Viboud C, Xiong X, Yu H, Halloran ME, Longini IM Jr, Vespignani A.The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Science. 2020 Mar 6. pii: eaba9757. doi: 10.1126/science.aba9757. [Epub ahead of print]


Peak, C. M., et al. (2017). "Comparing nonpharmaceutical interventions for containing emerging epidemics." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114(15): 4023-4028.


Nishiura, H. (2020). "Backcalculating the Incidence of Infection with COVID-19 on the Diamond Princess " Journal of Clinical Medicine 9(3): 657.


Rocklov, J. S., H; Wilder-Smith, A (2020). "COVID-19 Outbreak on the Diamond Princess Cruise Ship: Estimating the Epidemic Potential and Effectiveness of Public Health Countermeasures." J Travel Med.


Zhao, S. Z., Z; Cao, P; et al (2020). "Quantifying the association between domestic travel and the exportation of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) cases from Wuhan, China in 2020: a correlational analysis " Journal of Travel Medicine.


Anzai, A. K., T; Linto, NM; et al (2020). "Assessing the Impact of Reduced Travel on Exportation Dynamics of Novel Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19)." Journal of Clinical Medicine 9(2): 601.


Xinghuan Wang, Zhenyu Pan, Zhenshun Cheng. Association between 2019-nCoV transmission and N95 respirator use. medRxiv Feb 19 2020. doi: 


Kenji Mizumoto, Gerardo Chowell. Transmission potential of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) onboard the Diamond Princess Cruises Ship,   2020 MedRxiv 2020.02.24.20027649; doi:


Shi Zhao, Peihua Cao, Daozhou Gao, Zian Zhuang, Marc Chong, Yongli Cai, Jinjun Ran, Kai Wang, Yijun Lou, Weiming Wang, Lin Yang, Daihai He, Maggie H Wang. Modelling the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak on the Diamond Princess ship using the public surveillance data from January 20 to February 20, 2020

medRxiv 2020.02.26.20028449; doi:


Yixiang Ng, MSc1*; Zongbin Li, MBBS1*; Yi Xian Chua, et al. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Surveillance and Containment Measures for the First 100 Patients with COVID-19 in Singapore — January 2–February 29, 2020. EID. Early Release / March 13, 2020 / 69


Ferguson, N et al. Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce COVID19 mortality and healthcare demand


Difference between no, moderate or extensive social distancing in US (Columbia University model)


Non-pharmaceutical including universal face mask use measures for COVID-19 control in US


Aged care, prison, institutional, transport and occupational (non-health) and other risk-group outbreaks

SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in a long-term care facility after vaccination with BNT162b2 

Cruise ship outbreaks - Australia as a case study

A nightclub outbreak in Germany

Residential context and COVID-19 mortality among adults aged 70 years and older in Stockholm: a population-based, observational study using individual-level data

Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 During Long Flight

Home outbreaks >50% of all outbreaks. Superspreading <2%

An outbreak on a bus suggestive of airborne transmission

An outbreak on an aircraft

Asymptomatic transmission on an aircraft linked to toilets


Long range transmission in a meat packing plant


Mass testing in US prisons


COVID-19 in US prisons


OUtbreak on a navy ship (60% attack rate)


Systematic review of aged care outbreaks


Managed outbreak in Seattle assisted living facility


OUtbreak in aged care facility in Washington State


Church group outbreak in Arkansas


Serial testing in a veterans facility, US


Outbreak in a choir in Washington State


COVID-19 in US prisons


Outbreak in homeless shelters, US


COVID-19 in meat processing plants, US


Health workers

The effect of respiratory activity, ventilatory therapy and facemasks on total aerosol emissions

Seroprevalence in health workers in UK


Seroprevalence in US HCW

Intubation does not generate as much aerosol as coughing

Community Health Workers and Covid-19 — Addressing Social Determinants of Health in Times of Crisis and Beyond

zero HCW infections in Taiwan

Origin of aerosol generating procedures

Study of HCW in the Netherlands

Risk in HCW in UK

Low risk of infection of HCW in Taiwan

Study of HCW PPE and infection risk in China


Masks, N95, eye protection and physical distancing - WHO commissioned meta-analysis


Commentary on WHO meta-analysis


Risk of infection in HCW (Annals)


Deaths of health workers in China (NEJM)


Adams JG, Walls RM. Supporting the Health Care Workforce During the COVID-19 Global Epidemic. JAMA. Published online March 12, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.3972

Asymptomatic infection in health workers in the Netherlands


One in 5 HCW infected with COVID19 in UK


Cloth masks not suitable for health workers


Effectiveness of N95 respirators in protecting HCWs from COVID-19


Barrier intubation method


Droplet or airborne precautions?


Risk of transmission in primary care


Masks, PPE, materials, efficacy and effectiveness and Design of DIY masks

Effectiveness of Face Masks in Preventing Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from asymptomatic and presymptomatic individuals in healthcare settings despite medical masks and eye protection

Review of evidence on masks and N95s

Re-use of FFPs

Quantitative Protection Factors for Common Masks and Face Coverings

Effectiveness of eye protection

Droplet blocking by masks

Face masks considerably reduce COVID-19 cases in Germany

Effectiveness of mask mandates

Danish mask RCT

Face shields do not work

Trends in COVID-19 Incidence After Implementation of Mitigation Measures (masks) — Arizona, January 22–August 7, 2020

Evidence of effectiveness of community masks - Canada

Contamination and washing of cloth masks

Masks for all?

Washing of cloth masks

Social and behavioral consequences of mask policies during the COVID-19 pandemic

Evidence for community mask use

Mandating masks works - data from Germany

A video case study of surgical vs cloth masks

Only those wearing a face-shield got infected

The need of health policy perspective to protect Healthcare Workers during COVID-19 pandemic. A GRADE rapid review on the N95 respirators effectiveness

Coronavirus data from 4 RCTs

Gamma irradiation degrades N95 respirators

Clinical trials and other research on face masks from the MacIntyre research group

Our latest systematic review on masks for HCW, community and sick patients

N95 and COVID19 (from China)

Aerosol filtration of common fabrics

Use of nylon stockings over various masks

Principles for design of cloth masks

Testing of filtration of different DIY fabrics

A simple respiratory mask

Aerosol filtration of cotton and silk materials

Filtration of cloth masks


Hospitals, Patients, and Health systems capacity

Seroprevalence in outpatients in Virgina

Nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2


Remuzzi, A; Remuzzi, G. COVID-19 and Italy: what next? Lancet 2020. (includes modelling predictions) Published:March 13, 2020DOI:


Quarantine in Italy


ICU beds in Australia


Novel contact tracing using digital technology


Oxford University government response tracker


LSTMH Hospital bed surge capacity tool


Health systems India


Screening of all pregnant women attending an antenatal service in NY find 13% infected




Please check the Prepublication papers on Medrxiv - some of the most important research has been shared on this site for rapid dissemination.