COVID-19 key research papers and resources

coronavirus and map of China




We have continually curated important research papers and other resources, under topic headings, on COVID-19 to provide a quick and easy guide to current evidence. 


Paediatric cases, pregnancy and vertical transmission

Mask Use and Ventilation Improvements to Reduce COVID-19 Incidence in Elementary Schools — Georgia, November 16–December 11, 2020

Household Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from Children and Adolescents

Long COVID and kids: scientists race to find answers

The vaccine endgame and why children matter

Underlying Medical Conditions Associated With Severe COVID-19 Illness Among Children

Prevalence of COVID-19 in adolescents and youth compared with older adults in states experiencing surges

SARS-CoV-2 infection in schools in a northern French city: a retrospective serological cohort study in an area of high transmission, France, January to April 2020

Infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in children compared with adults

COVID-19 in children and the effect of schools reopening on potential transmission to household members

In-Hospital Mortality in a Cohort of Hospitalized Pregnant and Nonpregnant Patients With COVID-19

Clinical Characteristics and Transmission of COVID-19 in Children and Youths During 3 Waves of Outbreaks in Hong Kong

Reasons for Admissions to US Children’s Hospitals During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Association of Maternal SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Pregnancy With Neonatal Outcomes

Outbreak in schools after opening of schools, Israel

Children with MIS-C

Infection in contacts of children aged year K-12

Assessment of Maternal and Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load, Transplacental Antibody Transfer, and Placental Pathology in Pregnancies During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Children and SARS CoV 2

Age-Related Differences in Nasopharyngeal Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Levels in Patients With Mild to Moderate Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

American academy of pediatrics data on child COVID-19 cases

Hospitalization Rates and Characteristics of Children Aged <18 Years Hospitalized with Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 — COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1–July 25, 2020

Clinical Characteristics and Viral RNA Detection in Children With Coronavirus Disease 2019 in the Republic of Korea

Household secondary attack rate highest when index case is a child

SARS-CoV-2 in cardiac tissue of a child

Role of children in household transmission

Study showing higher viral shedding in children <5 years

School cluster of COVID-19 in France

SARS-CoV-2 infection in primary schools in northern France: A retrospective cohort study in an area of high transmission

Good summary of schools, children and COVID-19

Multisystem inflammatory disease in children

Renal disease in children

Outcomes in pregnant women

Kawasaki disease US

Kawasaki disease in the UK

Kawasaki diseases in France

Lower ACE2 receptor expression in children<10 years compared to people >10 years

2005 study showing association of coronaviruses with Kawasaki disease

SARS CoV 2 viral loads in children vs adults

NEJM COVID in children

Paediatric cases in the USA

Persistent viral shedding in children (Nature Medicine)

Epidemiology in children (review)

SARS-COV2 in Children. NEJM 2020

Detection of COVID in febrile children in January in Wuhan 

Epidemiological Characteristics of 2143 Pediatric Patients With 2019 Coronavirus Disease in China.  

A Case Series of children with 2019 novel coronavirus infection: clinical and epidemiological features.

A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. The Lancet.

Novel Coronavirus Infection in Hospitalized Infants Under 1 Year of Age in China." JAMA.

Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records." Lancet.

Asymptomatic children can shed virus for 10 days or more. Lancet.

JAMA: neonatal COVID 19

SARSCoV2 in childen

Clinical and epidemiological features of 36 children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Zhejiang, China: an observational cohort study

Lay summary of risk of transmission in kids


Transmission dynamics

Aerosol Dynamics Model for Estimating the Risk from Short-Range Airborne Transmission and Inhalation of Expiratory Droplets of SARS-CoV-2

How Did We Get Here: What Are Droplets and Aerosols and How Far Do They Go? A Historical Perspective on the Transmission of Respiratory Infectious Diseases

Transmissibility and transmission of respiratory viruses

Viral load and super-spreading

Attack rate in Manaus, Brazil 

Increased transmissibility of B117 variant in the UK

Transmissibility of B117 variant

Household attack rates in the US

Epidemiology and transmission dynamics in 2 Indian states (large contact tracing study)

Secondary household attack rates - metaanalysis

Data from 3 outbreak clusters with presymptomatic transmission

85% attack rate on a fishing trawler

Household contact study from the US

Transmission on a train

Airborne transmission as the dominant mode

Projecting the transmission dynamics of SARS CoV 2 through the post-pandemic period

High transmission near symptom onset

Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia." New England Journal of Medicine.

A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster." The Lancet.

Secondary attack rate and superspreading events for SARS-CoV-2." Lancet.

The Incubation Period of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) From Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases: Estimation and Application 

Retracted study (reasons unknown) showed transmission of COVID19 over 4.5m on a bus

COVID can survive in the air for 3 hours 

Estimating the generation interval for COVID-19 based on symptom onset data.

Prof Don Milton on WHO statement that COVID-19 is not airborne

Transmission at a bath centre in China

Droplets generated through normal speech

Coronaviruses exhaled in normal breathing, prevented by a mask


Viral shedding, immunology, immunity (including duration of shedding and shedding in “recovered” patients or reinfection), pathology and PCR-testing studies

Dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response up to 10 months after infection

Heterogeneity in transmissibility and shedding SARS-CoV-2 via droplets and aerosols

Estimating infectiousness throughout SARS-CoV-2 infection course

Variants, transmissibility and variants B117, B1351 and P1

Pathophysiology of COVID-19

Reinfection, Brazil

Reinfection risk after 6 months

Prolonged shedding of B117

Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody responses and duration of immunity: a longitudinal study

Viral load and contact heterogeneity predict SARS-CoV-2 transmission and super-spreading events

Summary of variant strains and vaccine escape potential

SARS-CoV-2 501Y.V2 escapes neutralization by South African COVID-19 donor plasma

Antibody dependent enhancement

Novel ACE Isoform

Antibody responses to SARS CoV 2 infection (IgA, IgM)

Anti-phospholipid antibodies and thormbosis

Will SARS CoV 2 become endemic (Science)

Reinfection with SARS CoV 2

Ultra-potent human antibodies to SARS CoV 2

Loss of SARS CoV 2 antibodies in mild infection

Antibody-like proteins that capture and neutralize SARS-CoV-2

Antibody Profiles and Mild or Severe SARS-CoV-2

Differential Tropism of SARS-CoVs in Bat Cells

SARS-CoV-2 in Quarantined Domestic Cats from COVID-19 Households or Close Contacts, Hong Kong, China

Short term immunity from seasonal coronaviruses

Neurological complications


Viral shedding in severe and mild cases

Long duration of viral shedding

Cardiac pathology in COVID-19

Reinfection with more severe infection the second time

A case of reinfection in Hong Kong

How long should isolation be - review of viral shedding data

Pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2: the knowns and unknowns

ACE2 expression in resp tract of adults, children, patients with COPD

Deep immune profiling of COVID-19 patients reveals distinct immunotypes with therapeutic implications

Cases who re-test positive after discharge - data from S Korea suggest not infectious

Infection gradient in the respiratory tract (Cell)

Targets of T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in humans with COVID-19 disease and unexposed individuals

Viable virus in faeces 

Reinfection with seasonal coronaviruses 

Proportion of test positive cases in Seattle and Washington State EDs and outpatient clinics

Viral load dynamics and disease severity in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Zhejiang province, China, January-March 2020: retrospective cohort study

Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID-2019 (Nature)

SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load in Upper Respiratory Specimens of Infected Patients. New England Journal of Medicine.  (contains data on asymptomatic shedding)

Positive RT-PCR Test Results in Patients Recovered From COVID-19. JAMA.

Fecal Specimen Diagnosis 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia.

Study in macaques on reinfection

Low levels of antibodies in recovered patients

Viral shedding in upper and lower respiratory tract

immune dysfunction in covid19



Asymptomatic infection and transmission

Household secondary attack rates

How did we get here: what are droplets and aerosols and how far do they go? A historical perspective on the transmission of respiratory infectious diseases

Airborne transmission in a church, Australia

Seropositivity in household contacts

Rates of asymptomatic infection in the US

Transmission from asymptomatic people

Viral load in asymptomatic higher than symptomatic

Transmission risk in outdoor and indoor settings

Mass screening in Wuhan and asymptomatic infection

OUtbreak data on proportion symptomatic and asymptomatic

Long distance spread of SARS CoV 2 in a hospital

Aerosol transmission between ferrets

Clinical and immunological features of asymptomatic infection

Modelling of Diamond Princess outbreak shows 69% of transmission was from asymptomatic

Half of infections on cruise ship were asymptomatic

Clinical Course and Molecular Viral Shedding Among Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Patients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Community Treatment Center in the Republic of Korea

Prevalence of asymptomatic infection - review (Annals Int Med)

Contact infection rate 

Asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission in an outbreak in Germany (Lancet)

Asymptomatic infection on the Diamond Princess

Natural history of asymptomatic infection (NEJM)

Summary of different studies showing high rates of asymptomatic infection

Up to 44% infections occur when index case is presymptomatic (Nature)

Asymptomatic infection in aged care (CDC)

Asymptomatic infection in aged care (NEJM)

Asymptomatic infection - population screening in Iceland

Relative transmissibility of asymptomatic cases

"The Rate of Underascertainment of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Infection: Estimation Using Japanese Passengers Data on Evacuation Flights."

Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Returning Travelers from Wuhan, China.

Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19." JAMA

Transmission of 2019-nCoV Infection from an Asymptomatic Contact in Germany New England Journal of Medicine.

Asymptomatic Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Patient Outside Wuhan: The Value of CT Images in the Course of the Disease

2019-nCoV transmission through the ocular surface must not be ignored

Estimating the Asymptomatic Proportion of 2019 Novel Coronavirus onboard the Princess Cruises Ship, 2020

Estimating the asymptomatic proportion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship, Yokohama, Japan, 2020 

SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load in Upper Respiratory Specimens of Infected Patients. New England Journal of Medicine.  (contains data on asymptomatic shedding)

Indirect Virus Transmission in Cluster of COVID-19 Cases, Wenzhou, China, 2020 

Clinical presentation and virological assessment of hospitalized cases of coronavirus disease 2019 in a travel-associated transmission clusteral 

Substantial undocumented infection facilitates the rapid dissemination of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2)Science  16 Mar 2020:

Transmission in aircraft

Why testing matters - the case study of USA

Summary of evidence on infectious period

Use of masks for sick patients - human coronaviruses

SARS-CoV-2 in blood donations

Barrier box for endotracheal intubation (NEJM)

Transmission from deceased patients in a morgue

Substantial undocumented transmission of SARS CoV 2

Airborne transmission of SARSCoV 2

Comparative aerosol efficiency of SARS, SARS COV2 and MERS COV


Clinical characteristics and epidemiology (including case fatality rate)

Characterisation of in-hospital complications associated with COVID-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK: a prospective, multicentre cohort study

Clinical and Virological Features of SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern: A Retrospective Cohort Study Comparing B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.315 (Beta), and B.1.617.2 (Delta)

High-dimensional characterization of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19

Long COVID - largest case series

Infection fatality rate by age

Risk of death from B117

Impact of COVID-19 restrictions on traffic accidents and injuries

Risk of mortality for B117 variant

Severe COVID-19 pneumonia

Impact of COVID measures on other viruses

Impact of COVID measures on influenza

Risk of death in teachers

All cause deaths in the US during 2020

Effect of school closures in the US 

Sequelae in Adults at 6 Months After COVID-19 Infection

Comparison of hospitalised influenza and COVID-19

Readmission in death in survivors

Varying severity of disease in identical twins

Lower risk of COVID in people with asthma

Evidence of SARS CoV 2 in the US in December 2019

Post-acute complications

COVID-19 and cardiac arrest

Risk factors for COVID-19 - meta-analysis. Hypertension, CVD, COPD, diabetes

Incidence and treatment of arrhythmias secondary to coronavirus infection in humans

Chronic manifestations of COVID-19

Risk factors in US veterans - ethnicity not a risk factor

COVID-19 and the heart

Eye glasses and risk of COVID

Risk factors for COVID-19 severe outcomes

Clinical presentations of COVID patients

Post-mortem findings (JAMA)

Diffuse pulmonary arterial thrombosis in fatal cases

Large vessel stroke in younger adults, some without symptoms of COVID-19 (NEJM)

Epidemiology and transmission of COVID-19 in 391 cases and 1286 of their close contacts in Shenzhen, China: a retrospective cohort study

Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area

Estimating Risk for Death from 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease, China, January–February 2020.

Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet.

The Incubation Period of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) From Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases: Estimation and Application.

Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA.

Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study." Lancet.

Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. New England Journal of Medicine.

Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China." Lancet.

First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine.

Epidemiologic Features and Clinical Course of Patients Infected With SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore." JAMA.

The Epidemiological Characteristics of an Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) — China, 2020[J]China CDC Weekly, 2020, 2(8): 113-122

Estimating clinical severity of COVID-19 from the transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China.

Case series from Seattle, NEJM

Coronavirus: Why it’s so deadly in Italy

Case fatality 7.2% in Italy - JAMA

Patients dying in Italy

Cross country CFR comparision

CFR in Germany and European countries

Epidemiology in the US

Who has flattened the curve best?

Estimates of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019: a model-based analysis (Lancet)

Coagulopathy and Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Patients with Covid-19 (NEJM)

Olfactory epithelium and anosmia

Immune thrombocytopenia

Outbreaks in detention centres

Guillaine Barre Syndrome associated with SARS CoV 2 infection

Complex immune dysregulation (Cell)

Neurological complications

Does MTB increase the risk of COVID19?

Antibody dependent immune enhancement with COVID19



R0 estimates, modelling and epidemic predictions

The economic burden of COVID-19 in the United States: Estimates and projections under an infection-based herd immunity approach

Estimated transmissibility and impact of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 in England

Manaus, Brazil - reinfection with P1

Infectiousness of B117 variant in the UK

Super-spreading and R0 estimates in Indonesia

Nowcasting and forecasting the potential domestic and international spread of the 2019-nCoV outbreak originating in Wuhan, China: a modelling study." Lancet

Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia." New England Journal of Medicine.

How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic? Lancet. 

Identifying Locations with Possible Undetected Imported Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Cases by Using Importation Predictions. EID


Sensitivity of diagnostic tests including chest imaging

Correlation between 3790 qPCR positives samples and positive cell cultures including 1941 SARS-CoV-2 isolates

The fuss about cycle threshholds for PCR

Salivary test

Variation in False-Negative Rate of Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction–Based SARS-CoV-2 Tests by Time Since Exposure

Performance of self-collected nasal swabs

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Different Types of Clinical Specimens JAMA.

Chest CT for Typical 2019-nCoV Pneumonia: Relationship to Negative RT-PCR Testing.

Asymptomatic Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Patient Outside Wuhan: The Value of CT Images in the Course of the Disease

Molecular diagnostics and antibody tests

Serological responses (IgM and IgG) to COVID 19

Neutralizing antibody response in recovered patients

Antibody responses

Lower antibodies in asymptomatic infected

Use of salivary testing

Immunological correlates of protection

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2−Specific Antibody Responses in Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients


Population serosurveys 

Bergamo, Italy

Wuhan, China

United states - asymptomatic seropositive rates

Vo, Italy 

Santa Clara County, California, USA


Los Angeles, USA

Bergamo, Italy

Geneva, Switzerland


United States blood donors

Elective surgery patients, Australia

Karnataka, India

South Korea


Co-infection with other pathogens

Early Bacterial Identification Among Intubated Patients with COVID-19 or Influenza Pneumonia: A European Multicenter Comparative Cohort Study

Bacterial and viral co-infections in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted to a French ICU

Bloodstream infections in critically ill patients with COVID-19

Co-infection with respiratory pathogens among COVID-2019 cases

Prevention of COVID-19 among older adults receiving pneumococcal conjugate vaccine suggests interactions between Streptococcus pneumoniae and SARS-CoV-2 in the respiratory tract 

Bacterial co-infections and antibiotic resistance in patients with COVID-19

Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection in hospitalised patients with COVID-19

Pneumococcal carriage in children with COVID-19

SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia cases in pneumonia picture in Russia in March-May 2020: Secondary bacterial pneumonia and viral co-infections

Impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Risk of Pneumococcal Coinfection With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): Prospective National Cohort Study, England

A Retrospective Study of Coinfection of SARS-CoV-2 and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 11 Hospitalized Patients with Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia at a Single Center

Bacterial/fungal infection in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in a tertiary hospital in the Community of Castilla y León, Spain

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Protection against Coronavirus-Associated Pneumonia Hospitalization in Children Living with and without HIV

Lung Pathology of Mutually Exclusive Co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and Streptococcus pneumoniae

Community-acquired bacteraemia in COVID-19 in comparison to influenza A and influenza B: a retrospective cohort study

High mortality co-infections of COVID-19 patients: mucormycosis and other fungal infections

Co-infection in critically ill patients with COVID-19: an observational cohort study from England 

Clinical and etiological analysis of co-infections and secondary infections in COVID-19 patients: An observational study

Bacterial coinfections in coronavirus disease 2019

Invasive pneumococcal disease affected the fatal outcome in a COVID-19 patient

Changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis during the COVID-19 pandemic in 26 countries and territories in the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance Initiative: a prospective analysis of surveillance data

Respiratory bacterial co-infections in intensive care unit-hospitalized COVID-19 patients: Conventional culture vs BioFire FilmArray pneumonia Plus panel

Prevalence of Bloodstream Infections and their Etiology in COVID-19 Patients Admitted in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Jaipur

Co-infection in Australia

Increased risk of death with influenza/SARS CoV 2 infection

Co-infection (JAMA)

Clinical diagnosis of 8274 samples with 2019-novel coronavirus in Wuhan.

Co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza A Virus in Patient with Pneumonia, China. EID

20% rate of co-infection (JAMA)


Phylogenetics, virology and variants of concern

Delta variants of SARS-CoV-2 cause significantly increased vaccine breakthrough COVID-19 cases in Houston, Texas

Epsilon: SARS-CoV-2 immune evasion by the B.1.427/B.1.429 variant of concern

Viral infection and transmission in a large well-traced outbreak caused by the Delta SARS-CoV-2 variant

Progressive Increase in Virulence of Novel SARS-CoV-2 Variants in Ontario, Canada, February to June, 2021

SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and variants under investigation in England (June 25)

S-Gene Target Failure as a Marker of Variant B.1.1.7 Among SARS-CoV-2 Isolates in the Greater Toronto Area, December 2020 to March 2021

Identification of a novel lineage bat SARS-related coronaviruses that use bat ACE2 receptor

Timing the SARS-CoV-2 index case in Hubei province

Risk of death from B117 variant of concern

B117 in long term care facilities, England

Risk of mortality for B117

Emergence of a SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern with mutations in spike glycoprotein

Genetic epidemiology of SARS CoV 2 in South America

Transmissbility of B117

SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 is susceptible to neutralizing antibodies elicited by ancestral Spike vaccines

Increased viral load with B117

NERVTAG report on increased severity and risk of death with UK variant

Explainer on variants of concern

Increased risk of death with B117

Evolution of mutations in immunocompromised host treated with convalescent plasma

Comprehensive mapping of mutations to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain that affect recognition by polyclonal human serum antibodies

Rapid genetic evolution in an immunocompromised host

The VUI-202012/01 (B117) mutation in the UK

Evolutionary origin of SARS CoV 2

Genetic epidemiology in Maryland

Interpretation of positive PCR after recovery

D614G mutation increases infectivity of SARS-CoV-2

Cryptic transmission in Washington state

The D614G mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein reduces S1 shedding and increases infectivity

Korber at al. The G vs D strain  and explanation by Trevor Bedford

Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. The Lancet from The Bedford Lab provides a continually updated phylogenetic tree  

Phylogenetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2

On the origin and continuing evolution of SARS-CoV-2. National Science Review,

The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nature Medicine

The proximal origin of SARS CoV 2

Synthetic SARS CoV 2


Origins of SARS CoV 2

Unexpected detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the prepandemic period in Italy

Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in an Oropharyngeal Swab Specimen, Milan, Italy, Early December 2019

Recovery of deleted deep sequencing data sheds more light on the early Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 epidemic

In silico comparison of SARS‑CoV‑2 spike protein‑ACE2 binding affinities across species and implications for virus origin

Investigate the origins of COVID-19

Unexpected novel Merbecovirus discoveries in agricultural sequencing datasets from Wuhan, China

Animal sales from Wuhan wet markets immediately prior to the COVID-19 pandemic

The genetic structure of SARS-CoV-2 does not rule out a laboratory origin

The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2


Antivirals, drugs and other treatments

Convalescent plasma RECOVERY trial

Effect of Intermediate-Dose vs Standard-Dose Prophylactic Anticoagulation on Thrombotic Events, Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Treatment, or Mortality Among Patients With COVID-19 Admitted to the Intensive Care UnitThe INSPIRATION Randomized Clinical Trial

Inhaled steroids for mild COVID-19

Baricitinib plus Remdesivir for Hospitalized Adults with Covid-19

IL6 antagonists (REMAP-CAP trial)

Recovery trial - dexamethasone

Meta-analysis of convalescent plasma

Early High-Titer Plasma Therapy to Prevent Severe Covid-19 in Older Adults

Effect of Bamlanivimab as Monotherapy or in Combination With Etesevimab on Viral Load in Patients With Mild to Moderate COVID-19

RCT of Vitamin D

WHO Solidarity trial


RCT of convalescent plasma

RCT of Monoclonal antibody LYCoV555

Tocilizumab in Patients Hospitalized with Covid-19 Pneumonia

Aspirin for COVID-19

Vitamin D pilot RCT

Effect of Colchicine vs Standard Care on Cardiac and Inflammatory Biomarkers and Clinical Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized With Coronavirus Disease 2019The GRECCO-19 Randomized Clinical Trial

No benefit of HCQ

WHO solidarity trial

Convalescent Plasma for the Treatment of COVID-19: Perspectives of the National Institutes of Health COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel

Heparin - role of heparan sulfate in spike protein binding

RCT of Remdesivir (JAMA)

Colchicine as a treatment (JAMA)

Low dose steroids

Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin

Neutralising antibody in an animal model (Science)

Convalescent plasma (RCT) (JAMA)

Recombinant, soluble ACE2

No efficacy of HCQ as prophylaxis for contacts (NEJM)

No difference between 5 or 10 days of remdesevir

Remdesivir - shorter time to recovery (NEJM)

Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine associated with increased mortality. - the veracity of the data in this study has been questioned and a letter signed by hundreds of scientists sent to Lancet

Expression of concern from Lancet about HCQ study above

Ivermectin shows invitro activity against SARS-CoV-2

COVID-19. hyperglycaemia and hydroxychloroquine

Lopinavir-ritonavir with and without IFNB

Anakinra (Lancet Rheumatology)

Remdesivir RCT (Lancet)

Anti-HCV, Nucleotide Inhibitors, Repurposing Against COVID-19

Comparative Therapeutic Efficacy of Remdesivir and Combination Lopinavir, Ritonavir, and Interferon Beta Against MERS-CoV."

The antiviral compound remdesivir potently inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus

Therapeutic options for the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)." Nature Reviews

Discovering Drugs to Treat Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)  

Is ibuprofen safe for people with COVID-19?

 A Trial of Lopinavir–Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19

remdesivir and chloroquine

No evidence of improved viral clearance on hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin

Compassionate use of remdesivir (NEJM)

RCT of hydroxychloroquine

Should ACE inhibitors be continued?

ACEI/ARB not associated with mortality

Convalescent serum

ACEI not associated with in-hospital mortality (NEJM)



Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an aerosolised adenovirus type-5 vector-based COVID-19 vaccine (Ad5-nCoV) in adults: preliminary report of an open-label and randomised phase 1 clinical trial

Breakthrough Infections of SARS-CoV-2 Gamma Variant in Fully Vaccinated Gold Miners, French Guiana, 2021

Protection afforded by the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccines in fully vaccinated cohorts with and without prior infection

Impact and effectiveness of mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 cases, hospitalisations, and deaths following a nationwide vaccination campaign in Israel: an observational study using national surveillance data

Effectiveness of Covid-19 Vaccines against the B.1.617.2 (Delta) Variant

Durable Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses 8 Months after Ad26.COV2.S Vaccination

Comparison of Neutralizing Antibody Titers Elicited by mRNA and Adenoviral Vector Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 Variants

Mix-and-match COVID vaccines trigger potent immune response

Spike-antibody waning after second dose of BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1

Effectiveness of an Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine in Chile (Sinovac)

Antibody epitopes in vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia

mRNA vaccination boosts cross-variant neutralizing antibodies elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection

A flow cytometric assay to detect platelet-activating antibodies in VITT after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination

Myocarditis Occurring After Immunization With mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccines (CDC authors)

Prevention and Attenuation of Covid-19 with the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 Vaccines

Myocarditis Following Immunization With mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines in Members of the US Military

Novavax Phase 3 RCT (NEJM)

Data discrepancies and substandard reporting of interim data of Sputnik V phase 3 trial

Vaccine- induced Immune Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis (VITT)

Thrombosis After Vaccination With Messenger RNA–1273: Is This Vaccine-Induced Thrombosis and Thrombocytopenia or Thrombosis With Thrombocytopenia Syndrome?

Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac) in healthy children and adolescents: a double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 1/2 clinical trial

Safety and Immunogenicity Report from the Com-COV Study – a Single-Blind Randomised Non-Inferiority Trial Comparing Heterologous And Homologous Prime-Boost Schedules with An Adenoviral Vectored and mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines induce persistent human germinal centre responses

Effect of Vaccination on Household Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in England

SARS-CoV-2 Variants and Vaccines

Myocarditis following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination

SARS-CoV-2 Delta VOC in Scotland: demographics, risk of hospital admission, and vaccine effectiveness

Naturally enhanced neutralizing breadth against SARS-CoV-2 one year after infection

Effectiveness of AZ and Pfizer against Delta (hospitalisation)

Immunogenicity of Ad26.COV2.S vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variants in humans

Adjunct Immune Globulin for Vaccine-Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia

Dual roles of a novel oncolytic viral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine: preventing COVID-19 and treating tumor progression

Effect of 2 Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines on Symptomatic COVID-19 Infection in AdultsA Randomized Clinical Trial (Sinopharm)

COVID-19 vaccine efficacy and effectiveness—the elephant (not) in the room

Neutralising antibody activity against SARS-CoV-2 VOCs B.1.617.2 and B.1.351 by BNT162b2 vaccination

Incident SARS-CoV-2 Infection among mRNA-Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Nursing Home Residents

Humoral and cellular immune response against SARS-CoV-2 variants following heterologous and homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/BNT162b2 vaccination.

Comparative systematic review and meta-analysis of reactogenicity, immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2

Reduced sensitivity of infectious SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.617.2 to monoclonal antibodies and sera from convalescent and vaccinated individuals

Vaccine-Induced Covid-19 Mimicry” Syndrome: Splice reactions within the SARS-CoV-2 Spike open reading frame result in Spike protein variants that may cause thromboembolic events in patients immunized with vector-based vaccines

Safety, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Adolescents List of authors.

Combination Respiratory Vaccine Containing Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike and Quadrivalent Seasonal Influenza Hemagglutinin Nanoparticles with Matrix-M Adjuvant

BNT162b2 vaccine induces neutralizing antibodies and poly-specific T cells in humans

Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against the B.1.617.2 variant

SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Response in Persons with Past Natural Infection

Neutralizing antibody levels are highly predictive of immune protection from symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection

PF4 Immunoassays in Vaccine-Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia

Heterologous vaccine schedules

Infections, Hospitalizations, and Deaths Averted Via Direct Effects of the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine in a Nationwide Vaccination Campaign, Israel

The Spike Proteins of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617 and B.1.618 Variants Identified in India 2 Provide Partial Resistance to Vaccine-elicited and Therapeutic Monoclonal 3 Antibodies

Adverse events following Pfizer and AZ in the UK

Single-dose BNT162b2 vaccine protects against asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection

Early rate reductions of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 in BNT162b2 vaccine recipients

BNT162b2-Elicited Neutralization against New SARS-CoV-2 Spike Variants

Real world effectiveness of JnJ

Effectiveness of BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine Against Infection and COVID-19 Vaccine Coverage in Healthcare Workers in England, Multicentre Prospective Cohort Study (the SIREN Study)

Effect of vaccination on transmission of COVID-19: an observational study in healthcare workers and their households

Impact of vaccination on household transmission of SARS-COV-2 in England

Neutralizing antibody vaccine for pandemic and pre-emergent coronaviruses

Mucosal immunity after vaccination

Pfizer vaccine effectiveness agains B117 and B1351

Combination Respiratory Vaccine Containing Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike and Quadrivalent Seasonal Influenza Hemagglutinin Nanoparticles with Matrix-M Adjuvant

COVID-19 dynamics after a national immunization program in Israel

Arterial events, venous thromboembolism, thrombocytopenia, and bleeding after vaccination with Oxford-AstraZeneca ChAdOx1-S in Denmark and Norway: population based cohort study

Efficacy of NVX-CoV2373 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.351 Variant

Phase 1–2 Trial of a SARS-CoV-2 Recombinant Spike Protein Nanoparticle Vaccine

Impact and effectiveness of mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 cases, hospitalisations, and deaths following a nationwide vaccination campaign in Israel: an observational study using national surveillance data

US Case Reports of Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis With Thrombocytopenia After Ad26.COV2.S Vaccination, March 2 to April 21, 2021

Immunogenicity of BNT162b2 in cancer patients

Initial report of decreased SARS-CoV-2 viral load after inoculation with the BNT162b2 vaccine

Interim findings from first-dose mass COVID-19 vaccination roll-out and COVID-19 hospital admissions in Scotland: a national prospective cohort study

COVID-19 vaccine coverage in health-care workers in England and effectiveness of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine against infection (SIREN): a prospective, multicentre, cohort study

Efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern 202012/01 (B.1.1.7): an exploratory analysis of a randomised controlled trial

Successful treatment of VITT

mrna vaccines in pregnant women

Post-vaccination outbreak in aged care

Phase 3 trial JnJ

Herpes zoster after Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine

COVID-19 dynamics after a national immunization program in Israel

Pathology of VITT

VITT following J&J

Phase 3 trial Sinovac

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein and Anti-Platelet Factor 4 Antibody Responses Induced by COVID-19 Disease and ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination


Immune response after infection and 1 dose vaccine

Novavax, Moderna neutralisation against variants of concern

EMA statement on AZ vaccine and VIPIT

Adverse events following mRNA vaccines

Duration of immunity, Moderna

VIPIT - British Haematologists guidelines

VIPIT guidelines Canada

AZ- associated Vaccine induced prothrombotic immune thrombocytopena - list of case reports

A Prothrombotic Thrombocytopenic Disorder Resembling Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Following Coronavirus-19 Vaccination

Pfizer press release - trial of children 12-16

VE of AZ against B117

Herd immunity, Israel?

Effectiveness of mRNA vaccines against all infection in US

Early Evidence of the Effect of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine at One Medical Center

European Medicines Agency statement on AZ and CVT

AZ trial in the US - press release

Neutralising antibodies after Pfizer vaccine

mRNA vaccine explainer

Moderna vaccine activity against variants of concern

Efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.351 Variant (NEJM)

The rise of SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 in Israel intensifies the role of surveillance and vaccination in elderly

Assessing the Effectiveness of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1nCoV-19 COVID-19 Vaccination in Prevention of Hospitalisations in Elderly and Frail Adults: A Single Centre Test Negative Case-Control Study

Immunogenicity of Ad26 COVID-19 vaccine (JnJ)

Antibody response to Pfizer in seropositive people

Neutralizing Activity of BNT162b2-Elicited Serum

Delayed local reactions to mRNA vaccines

Immunogenicity of single dose Pfizer and Moderna vaccines after natural infection

Preliminary Efficacy of the NVX-CoV2373 Covid-19 Vaccine Against the B.1.351 Variant

Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 spike 69/70 deletion, E484K and N501Y variants by BNT162b2 vaccine-elicited sera

Effectiveness of First Dose of COVID-19 Vaccines Against Hospital Admissions in Scotland: National Prospective Cohort Study of 5.4 Million People

Impact of vaccinating older adults

Effectiveness of BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine Against Infection and COVID-19 Vaccine Coverage in Healthcare Workers in England, Multicentre Prospective Cohort Study (the SIREN Study)

COVID vaccines in pregnant women

BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine in a Nationwide Mass Vaccination Setting - Israel

Janssen vaccine FDA submission

Effectiveness of First Dose of COVID-19 Vaccines Against Hospital Admissions in Scotland: National Prospective Cohort Study of 5.4 Million People

Bells palsy and mRNA vaccines

First real-world UK data shows Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine provides high levels of protection from the first dose

mRNA vaccine-elicited antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and circulating variants

Moderna vaccine response to variants

FDA-authorized mRNA  COVID-19 vaccines are effective per real-world evidence synthesized across a multi-state health system

Single-dose administration and the influence of the timing of the booster dose on immunogenicity and efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine: a pooled analysis of four randomised trials

Neutralisation against variants of concern - Pfizer

Neutralisation against variants of concern - Moderna

Reduced efficacy of AZ vaccine in South Africa

Impact of vaccination in Israel

Reduced viral load after vaccination with Pfizer (Israel)

Allergic Reactions Including Anaphylaxis After Receipt of the First Dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine

Sputnik vaccine interim phase 3

Commentary on Sputnik and other Ad vectored vaccines

Sinopharm vaccines neutralising ability against South African variant

Single Dose Administration, And The Influence Of The Timing Of The Booster Dose On Immunogenicity and Efficacy Of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) Vaccine

J&J press release

Novavax press release - reduced efficacy against mutants

Novavax preclinical (animal) study

Bharat Biotech Phase 1

Moderna press release on UK, South African variants of concern

Sanofi and GSK phase 1 trial

J&J Phase 1-2 trial

Sinovac phase 1/2

Adenoviral vectors for vaccines explained

Mandating COVID vaccines - legal and ethical considerations

Moderna RCT

Herd immunity through vaccination

mRNA vaccines explained

Pfizer phase 3 trial

Astra Zeneca Phase 3 trial

Astra Zeneca Phase 2/3 RCT

Requirements for herd immunity with a vaccine

Prospects for a safe vaccine

Pfizer vaccine phase 1 NEJM

Safety and immunogenicity of the Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccine candidate: interim results of a phase 1/2a, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Sinovac CORONAVAC phase 1/2 RCT

The problems with adenovirus vectors explained

Influenza vaccine and COVID19

WHO summary of vaccines in development

Russian adenovirus 5 and 6 prime boost vaccine

Critique of Russian data

Phase 1–2 Trial of a SARS-CoV-2 Recombinant Spike Protein Nanoparticle Vaccine (Novavax/UQ)

List of authors.Attitudes to vaccines

Antibody dependent enhancement

Whole inactivated vaccine shows good immunogenicity and safety

Evaluation of the mRNA-1273 Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in Nonhuman Primates

Moderna vaccine Phase 1 trial

First in humans phase 1 trial of adenovirus 5 vectored COVID19 vaccine

No association between childhood BCG and COVID-19 (JAMA)

Eight different approaches to COVID19 vaccines explained

Overview of different vaccine approaches by Sinobiologicals

Overview of Current Therapeutics and Novel Candidates Against Influenza, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections.

BCG vaccine protection from severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Treatment for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome from COVID-19

Vaccine development landscape for COVID-19

Influenza vaccine and viral interference with coronaviruses

The Potential Role of Th17 Immune Responses in Coronavirus Immunopathology and Vaccine-induced Immune Enhancement


Immunology, Immunological and genomic correlates of protection and disease severity

A single dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine BNT162b2 elicits Fc-mediated antibody effector functions and T cell responses

Delayed production of neutralizing antibodies correlates with fatal COVID-19

Longitudinal analysis of humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 Spike in convalescent individuals up to eight months post-symptom onset

Antibody responses and symptoms

Reinfection in Manaus, Brazil

Antibody dependent enhancement explained

Duration of immunity after infection

Cross reaction with human seasonal coronavirus memory T cells

Autoantibodies against IFN

Inborn errors of type I IFN immunity in patients with life-threatening COVID-19

Inhibition of IFN by SARS CoV 2

Serological responses at 4 months after infection in Iceland

Immune responses in older people

SARS-CoV-2 T cell immunity: Specificity, function, durability, and role in protection

Deep immune profiling

Pre-existing immunity

Genomewide Association Study of Severe Covid-19 with Respiratory Failure

Cross-reactive S-reactive CD4 cells in SARS-CoV-2 negative people


Environmental contamination, aerosols, air sampling, hospital ward sampling, PPE and disinfection

Viral Load of SARS-CoV-2 in Respiratory Aerosols Emitted by COVID-19 Patients while Breathing, Talking, and Singing

Expiratory aerosol particle escape from surgical masks due to imperfect sealing

Breathing, speaking, coughing or sneezing: What drives transmission of SARS-CoV-2?

Probable airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a poorly ventilated restaurant

Outdoor Airborne Transmission of Coronavirus Among Apartments in High-Density Cities

Indoor Air Changes and Potential Implications for SARS-CoV-2 Transmission

Isolation of SARS-CoV-2 from the air in a car driven by a COVID patient with mild illness

Airborne transmission of SARS CoV 2 between ferrets

Risk factors and on-site simulation of environmental transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the largest wholesale market of Beijing, China

Cold-chain food contamination as the possible origin of COVID-19 resurgence in Beijing 

Mechanistic transmission modeling of COVID-19 on the Diamond Princess cruise ship demonstrates the importance of aerosol transmission

Particle sizes of infectious aerosols: implications for infection control

Characterization of hospital airborne SARS-CoV-2

Aerosol filtration efficiency of household materials for homemade face masks: Influence of material properties, particle size, particle electrical charge, face velocity, and leaks

Long-distance airborne dispersal of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 wards

SARS CoV 2 in the air inside a car

Prof Don Milton lecture on aerosols

Is wiping surfaces of any use?

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 within the healthcare environment: a multicentre study conducted during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in England

Assessment of Air Contamination by SARS-CoV-2 in Hospital Settings

Another building with transmission through air ducts

Short range aerosols

Aerosol generation during intubation, extubation and coughing

Virus on banknotes and touch screens for weeks

Effect of air purifiers in closed classrooms

Airborne transmission of SARS CoV2

Aerosol transmission in a choir practice

Viable airborne SARS CoV 2 in the absence of aerosol generating procedures

CDC list of disinfectants for SARS CoV 2

Aerosol generation and a novel hood for COVID-19 patients

Airborne transmission in aged care

Probable Evidence of Fecal Aerosol Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a High-Rise Building

Evidence of airborne transmission of SARS CoV2 including spread through a building

Aerodynamics of SARS CoV 2 in a hospital in Wuhan

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by inhalation of respiratory aerosol in the Skagit Valley Chorale superspreading event

Quantitative assessment of the risk of airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection: prospective and retrospective applications

Evidence of aerosol transmission

Viable SARS CoV2 in air 

Airborne SARS-CoV-2 is Rapidly Inactivated by Simulated Sunlight

Reducing transmission of SARS CoV 2

Small droplet aerosols in poorly ventilated spaces and SARS-CoV-2 transmission

Study comparing original and modified WHO hand sanitizer formulation against SARS-CoV-2

Aerodynamic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in two Wuhan hospitals (Nature)

Comparative dynamic aerosol efficiencies of three emergent coronaviruses and the unusual persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in aerosol suspensions (from NIH, USAMRID, UTMB, Tulane)

Aerosol transmission of SARSCoV2 - review

Air, Surface Environmental, and Personal Protective Equipment Contamination by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) From a Symptomatic Patient JAMA. 

Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. NEJM. 

Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents.

SARS-CoV 2 found on surfaces in the Diamond Princess 17 days after passengers disembarked

SARSCoV2 on banknotes, masks and other surfaces

SARSCoV2 in wastewater in US

SARS COV2 - environmental contamination, air vents, air samples and spread 4m from patient

Widespread contamination and airborne transmission - University of Nebraska Medical Center

Detection of Air and Surface Contamination by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Hospital Rooms of Infected Patients

Aerodynamic Characteristics and RNA Concentration of SARS-CoV-2 Aerosol in Wuhan Hospitals during COVID-19 Outbreak

Re-use and decontamination on N95 respirators

Persistence of aerosolised viable SARS-CoV2

Disinfection methods for re-using single use PPE

COVID-19 in air pollution particles

National academies of science (NAS) Rapid Expert Consultation on SARS-CoV-2 Survival in Relation to Temperature and Humidity and Potential for Seasonality for the COVID-19 Pandemic (April 7, 2020) (2020)

Other NAS rapid reviews


Effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical measures (contact tracing, case isolation, quarantine, travel restrictions, PPE)

Close proximity risk assessment for SARS-CoV-2 infection

Mask Mandates, On-Premises Dining, and COVID-19

Association of State-Issued Mask Mandates and Allowing On-Premises Restaurant Dining with County-Level COVID-19 Case and Death Growth Rates — United States, March 1–December 31, 2020

Health and economic costs of early and delayed suppression and the unmitigated spread of COVID-19: The case of Australia

Assessment of Day-7 Postexposure Testing of Asymptomatic Contacts of COVID-19 Patients to Evaluate Early Release from Quarantine — Vermont, May–November 2020

Mask Use and Ventilation Improvements to Reduce COVID-19 Incidence in Elementary Schools — Georgia, November 16–December 11, 2020

Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from international arrivals: Xiaotangshan Designated Hospital, China

COVID-19 transmission in Hong Kong despite universal masking

SARS-CoV-2 elimination, not mitigation, creates best outcomes for health, the economy, and civil liberties

Estimating and mitigating the risk of COVID-19 epidemic rebound associated with reopening of international borders in Vietnam: a modelling study

Air cleaners for the COVID ward

Testing mobile air purifiers in a school classroom: Reducing the airborne transmission risk for SARS-CoV-2

Elastomeric vs N95 during resuscitation

Effect of 3ft vs 6ft distancing in schools

Assessment of Use and Fit of Face Masks Among Individuals in Public During the COVID-19 Pandemic in China

Summary evidence for masks

Quarantine and isolation for reducing transmission

Evidence for masks against SARS CoV 2

Social distancing impact

Reducing transmission of SARS CoV 2

Assessing the impact of coordinated COVID-19 exit strategies across Europe

Universal masking in hospitals

Physical distancing interventions and incidence of coronavirus disease 2019: natural experiment in 149 countries

Impact of lockdown in UK on health services


Comparison of Estimated Rates of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Border Counties in Iowa Without a Stay-at-Home Order and Border Counties in Illinois With a Stay-at-Home Order

Contact tracing efficacy

Association of Public Health Interventions With the Epidemiology of the COVID-19 Outbreak in Wuhan, China

The effectiveness of full and partial travel bans against COVID-19 spread in Australia for travellers from China.

Feasibility of controlling COVID-19 outbreaks by isolation of cases and contacts.

The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. 

Comparing nonpharmaceutical interventions for containing emerging epidemics

Backcalculating the Incidence of Infection with COVID-19 on the Diamond Princess

COVID-19 Outbreak on the Diamond Princess Cruise Ship: Estimating the Epidemic Potential and Effectiveness of Public Health Countermeasures.

Quantifying the association between domestic travel and the exportation of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) cases from Wuhan, China in 2020: a correlational analysis

Assessing the Impact of Reduced Travel on Exportation Dynamics of Novel Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19).

Association between 2019-nCoV transmission and N95 respirator use. 

Transmission potential of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) onboard the Diamond Princess Cruises ship,   2020 

Modelling the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak on the Diamond Princess ship using the public surveillance data from January 20 to February 20, 2020

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Surveillance and Containment Measures for the First 100 Patients with COVID-19 in Singapore — January 2–February 29, 2020. EID

Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce COVID19 mortality and healthcare demand

Difference between no, moderate or extensive social distancing in US (Columbia University model)

Non-pharmaceutical including universal face mask use measures for COVID-19 control in US


Aged care, prison, institutional, transport and occupational (non-health) and other risk-group outbreaks

SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in a long-term care facility after vaccination with BNT162b2 

Cruise ship outbreaks - Australia as a case study

A nightclub outbreak in Germany

Residential context and COVID-19 mortality among adults aged 70 years and older in Stockholm: a population-based, observational study using individual-level data

Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 During Long Flight

Home outbreaks >50% of all outbreaks. Superspreading <2%

An outbreak on a bus suggestive of airborne transmission

An outbreak on an aircraft

Asymptomatic transmission on an aircraft linked to toilets

Long range transmission in a meat packing plant

Mass testing in US prisons

COVID-19 in US prisons

OUtbreak on a navy ship (60% attack rate)

Systematic review of aged care outbreaks

Managed outbreak in Seattle assisted living facility

OUtbreak in aged care facility in Washington State

Church group outbreak in Arkansas

Serial testing in a veterans facility, US

Outbreak in a choir in Washington State

COVID-19 in US prisons

Outbreak in homeless shelters, US

COVID-19 in meat processing plants, US


Health workers

Why did so few healthcare workers in China get COVID-19 infection

The effect of respiratory activity, ventilatory therapy and facemasks on total aerosol emissions

Seroprevalence in health workers in UK


Seroprevalence in US HCW

Intubation does not generate as much aerosol as coughing

Community Health Workers and Covid-19 — Addressing Social Determinants of Health in Times of Crisis and Beyond

zero HCW infections in Taiwan

Origin of aerosol generating procedures

Study of HCW in the Netherlands

Risk in HCW in UK

Low risk of infection of HCW in Taiwan

Study of HCW PPE and infection risk in China

Masks, N95, eye protection and physical distancing - WHO commissioned meta-analysis

Commentary on WHO meta-analysis

Risk of infection in HCW (Annals)

Deaths of health workers in China (NEJM)

Supporting the Health Care Workforce During the COVID-19 Global Epidemic. JAMA. 

Asymptomatic infection in health workers in the Netherlands

One in 5 HCW infected with COVID19 in UK

Cloth masks not suitable for health workers

Effectiveness of N95 respirators in protecting HCWs from COVID-19

Barrier intubation method

Droplet or airborne precautions?

Risk of transmission in primary care


Masks, PPE, materials, efficacy and effectiveness and Design of DIY masks

Designing a a high performance cloth mask (video)

Experimental Evidence for the Optimal Design of a High-Performing Cloth Mask

Mask Use and Ventilation Improvements to Reduce COVID-19 Incidence in Elementary Schools — Georgia, November 16–December 11, 2020

Face masks effectively limit the probability of SARS-CoV-2 transmission

The Impact of Universal Mask Use on SARS-COV-2 in Victoria, Australia on the Epidemic Trajectory of COVID-19

Effectiveness of Face Masks in Preventing Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from asymptomatic and presymptomatic individuals in healthcare settings despite medical masks and eye protection

Review of evidence on masks and N95s

Re-use of FFPs

Quantitative Protection Factors for Common Masks and Face Coverings

Effectiveness of eye protection

Droplet blocking by masks

Face masks considerably reduce COVID-19 cases in Germany

Effectiveness of mask mandates

Danish mask RCT

Face shields do not work

Trends in COVID-19 Incidence After Implementation of Mitigation Measures (masks) — Arizona, January 22–August 7, 2020

Evidence of effectiveness of community masks - Canada

Contamination and washing of cloth masks

Masks for all?

Washing of cloth masks

Social and behavioral consequences of mask policies during the COVID-19 pandemic

Evidence for community mask use

Mandating masks works - data from Germany

A video case study of surgical vs cloth masks

Only those wearing a face-shield got infected

The need of health policy perspective to protect Healthcare Workers during COVID-19 pandemic. A GRADE rapid review on the N95 respirators effectiveness

Coronavirus data from 4 RCTs

Gamma irradiation degrades N95 respirators

Clinical trials and other research on face masks from the MacIntyre research group

Our latest systematic review on masks for HCW, community and sick patients

N95 and COVID19 (from China)

Aerosol filtration of common fabrics

Use of nylon stockings over various masks

Principles for design of cloth masks

Testing of filtration of different DIY fabrics

A simple respiratory mask

Aerosol filtration of cotton and silk materials

Filtration of cloth masks


Hospitals, Patients, and Health systems capacity

The Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Transmission from Patients with Undiagnosed Covid-19 to Roommates in a Large Academic Medical Center 

Seroprevalence in outpatients in Virgina

Nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2

COVID-19 and Italy: what next? 

Quarantine in Italy

ICU beds in Australia

Novel contact tracing using digital technology

Oxford University government response tracker

LSTMH Hospital bed surge capacity tool

Health systems India

Screening of all pregnant women attending an antenatal service in NY find 13% infected





UNSW Time Series Modelling global dashboard


WHO dashboard

Johns Hopkins KAP COVID (social and behavioural data)

CovSPECTRUM (GISAID genetic sequencing data by country including variants)

Imperial College KAP COVID

Carnegie Mellon COVIDCast (US data)

"Policy Tracker"  Launched by the IMF March 25, summarizes the key economic responses governments are taking to limit the human and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic as of March 24, 2020. 

The Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker was launched on March 24 and counts data from 73 countries so far, including China, South Korea, Italy, UK and USA. T

PEW Research center



Please check the Prepublication papers on Medrxiv - some of the most important research has been shared on this site for rapid dissemination.